According to Professor Michael Savage, British academic and renowned sociologist, if one were to look at working out the costs of Apartheid, one would have to factor in the following areas. Here is a brief summary of his work

First, there are the direct costs involved in implementing and maintaining apartheid programs. These costs include those of supporting 10 “homeland” governments, of providing duplicated services in areas such as health and education, of carrying out black population removals from “white” areas, of implementing Group Areas legislation.

Second, there are indirect costs involved in implementing apartheid, which again are enormously varied. These include capital expenditures on buildings used in carrying out the policy, on transport systems needed to accord with territorial segregation, and expenditure on the vehicles, machinery and communications used in implementing the system.

Third, there are the enforcement costs involved in applying and policing apartheid. Police, courts, magistrates, prisons, officials and the Defence Force are all involved in greater and lesser degrees in enforcing the policy of apartheid. In addition there are the costs paid by those on whom apartheid is enforced in, for example, having to spend time in courts and prisons because of apartheid legislation.

Fourth, there are lost opportunity costs arising from apartheid. These are substantial and involve the cost of lost investment to South Africa and consequent lower rates of economic growth; the cost of artificial limitations on the use of economic and human resources that result in the loss of potential skills and in foregone economic growth.

Fifth, there are the punitive costs to South Africa of apartheid flowing from the application of embargoes and sanctions. These directly involve the loss of trade but also involve premiums that South Africa has to pay to obtain key materials, such as oil, and the costs of stockpiling these materials and attempting to become self-sufficient in the production of them.

Sixth, and most importantly, there are the human costs of the apartheid system. These are enormous, involving the suffering and brutalization of life experienced by large numbers of South Africans as a direct result of apartheid policies. Some of these costs can be directly seen in the prisons, townships and rural areas of South Africa but most are to be viewed within the daily fabric of South African life. Seventh, there are the regional costs of the apartheid policy, paid by South Africa’s neighbours in terms of increased military expenditures due to apartheid policies, direct war damage, lost exports and lost economic growth.”

Seventh, there are the regional costs of the apartheid policy, paid by South Africa’s neighbours in terms of increased military expenditures due to apartheid policies, direct war damage, lost exports and lost economic growth.”

What he isn’t telling you that there is also a ‘hidden cost,’ an eighth cost that isn’t visible and largely ignored by most statisticians and actuarial scientists that attempts a calculus of this scope and magnitude? For that and more, well delve deeper into the costs of Apartheid and who’s paying for it in the next instalment?